Biology Tips for O Level Essay

Cell framework and organization

• Chloroplasts

o Web page of the natural photosynthesis where light energy is definitely absorbed

o Consist of seccatura which are stacked up to maximize surface area to get absorption of sunshine

o Only present in plant cells

• Cell membrane (plasma membrane)

o Lipid bilayer that surrounds the cell, interspersed with protein molecule um Presence of temporary tiny holes

o Selectively permeable

 Controls motion of substances

o Konzentrationsausgleich, osmosis and active transport can therefore take place u Prevent outflowing of cytoplasm

o Tonoplast

 Sang membrane adjacent the vacuole

• Cellular wall

um Made of cellulose (a polysaccharide), and may be deposited with ligin um Maintain cellular turgidity, provide mechanical support, protect from mechanical damage

o Openly permeable to water and most solutes

u Only present in plant cellular material

• Cytoplasm

o Protoplasm surrounding the nucleus

um There are numerous organelles present in the cytoplasm

um Organelle

 Specialized membrane bound constructions

• Cell vacuole

o Fluid-filled space enclosed with a membrane

u In creature cells, these are present as numerous small kinds, and these are usually not long term

o In plant skin cells, there is usually a large central vacuole

o Cell sap

 Substance in vacuoles, contains all kinds of sugar, mineral salts and amino acids

o Tonoplast

 Membrane layer around the vacuole

• Nucleus

o Nucleoplasm

 Little spherical mass of denser protoplasm

um Nuclear membrane layer

 Elemental envelope

u Found in the cytoplasm

to Control actions of the cell

 Duplication, repairs and maintenance

o Chromatin

 Network of long thread-like structures, that contains the inheritance materials

o Chromatin comprises of proteins and DNA (Deoxyribose Nucleic Acid) o Chromosomes

Condensed and highly coiled chromatin posts during cell


um Nucleoli

 A spherical structure that plays a part in the build up of proteins

• Endoplasmic reticulum

o Several flattened bedding

o Easy endoplasmic reticulum

 Sites of synthesis and transfer of anabolic steroids and fats

o Hard endoplasmic reticulum

 Transportation proteins synthesized at the ribosomes towards Golgi bodies to get secretary providing

• Mitochondria

o Rod-shaped

o Site of cardio respiration

to Powerhouse

 Release strength during cellular respiration

• Golgi body

o Stacks of squashed membrane sacs

o Associated with secretion of vesicles, creation of lysosomes

• Ribosomes

o Tiny structures focused on the production of proteins o Found on rough endoplasmic reticulum

• Comparison among plant cell and creature cell

Herb cell

Animal cell

Cell wall


Cellular membrane




Golgi apparatus

Endoplasmic reticulum








1 large central

Many small






o All cells have got cell membrane layer, cytoplasm, nucleus, mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum and ribosomes

• Root locks cell

to Function

 Increase compression of water and mineral salts from your soil to Presence of root hair

o Long and elongated

o Increase surface area intended for greater price of ingestion

• Xylem vessel

u Function

 Conduction of water in plants along with offer mechanical support

o Narrow and cylindrical constant tube

um Absence of mix wall

o Water column can move very easily up the lumen of the xylem vessel um Lignified cell walls

u Strengthens the wall and prevents collapse of the xylem vessel Crimson blood cellular

o Function

 Transfer of oxygen from lungs to the remaining portion of the body

to Contains hemoglobin

 Oxygen carrier

um Flat, biconcave shape (no nucleus)

um This serves to increase surface area to quantity ratio

um Oxygen also can diffuse in to or from the cell at a faster rate o The absence of a nucleus as well allow the crimson blood cellular to squash through the thin capillaries


o Standard structural product of all creatures

o Useful unit of most organisms in which all chemical substance...

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